Designed at ParaType in 1989 by Alexander Tarbeev. A modern replica of the typeface by Giambattista Bodoni, the Italian punchcutter and typographer of the late 18th century. Bodoni was a director of printing house of Duke of Parma in Italy. His early types were based on those of Fournier and Didot, but he developed the designs to become what are now considered to be the first modern typefaces. His letters have strong vertical stress, sharply contrasting thick and thin strokes and unbracketed hairline serifs. The contrast of thick and thin in Bodoni typefaces can produce a sparkling effect on a page: should be carefully used in texts; good for headlines and display. Condensed and decorative styles were added in 1993–97.